Avocado Г¶kologischer FuГџabdruck

Avocado Г¶kologischer FuГџabdruck

Avocado Г¶kologischer FuГџabdruck Video

Avocado Г¶kologischer FuГџabdruck Video

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Avocado Г¶kologischer FuГџabdruck

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U tunu dodajte na kockice usitnjen avokado i miksajte vilicom dok ne dobijete kremu. Smjesu vratite u izdubljene polovice avokada i tako servirajte.

Spaghette stavite kuhati u uzavrelu posoljenu vodu. Blendajte dok ne dobijete kremastu smjesu. Tjesteninu ocijedite, te preko nje prelijte umak od avokada.

Ubacite ga u blender i miksajte dok ne postane potpuno kremast. Ovaj proizvod ne s Prehrana Nutricionizam. Avokado — jedna od najzdravijih namirnica na svijetu.

Koji su zdravstveni benefiti avokada? Dodajte preostali limunov sok i papar. Commercially, they ripen after harvesting. Avocado trees are partially self-pollinating , and are often propagated through grafting to maintain predictable fruit quality and quantity.

Panicles of flowers with deciduous bracts arise from new growth or the axils of leaves. The species is variable because of selection pressure by humans to produce larger, fleshier fruits with a thinner exocarp.

Persea americana , or the avocado, possibly originated in the Tehuacan Valley [12] in the state of Puebla , Mexico, [13] although fossil evidence suggests similar species were much more widespread millions of years ago.

However, there is evidence for three possible separate domestications of the avocado, resulting in the currently recognized Mexican aoacatl , Guatemalan quilaoacatl , and West Indian tlacacolaocatl landraces.

The earliest residents were living in temporary camps in an ancient wetland eating avocados, chilies, mollusks, sharks, birds, and sea lions.

The native, undomesticated variety is known as a criollo , and is small, with dark black skin, and contains a large seed.

The plant was introduced to Spain in , Indonesia around , Mauritius in , Brazil in , the United States mainland in , South Africa and Australia in the late 19th century, and the Ottoman Empire in Before , the avocado was commonly referred to in California as ahuacate and in Florida as alligator pear.

In , the California Avocado Association introduced the then-innovative term avocado to refer to the plant.

The modern English name comes from an English rendering of the Spanish aguacate as avogato. The earliest known written use in English is attested from as "avogato pear", a term which was later corrupted as "alligator pear".

In other Central American and Caribbean Spanish-speaking countries, it is known by the Mexican name, while South American Spanish-speaking countries use a Quechua -derived word, palta.

In Portuguese, it is abacate. The fruit is sometimes called an avocado pear or alligator pear due to its shape and the rough green skin of some cultivars.

In the United Kingdom, the term avocado pear is still sometimes misused as applied when avocados first became commonly available in the s.

Originating as a diminutive in Australian English , a clipped form, avo , has since become a common colloquialism in South Africa and the United Kingdom.

It is known as "butter fruit" in parts of India. The subtropical species needs a climate without frost and with little wind.

High winds reduce the humidity, dehydrate the flowers, and affect pollination. The trees also need well-aerated soils, ideally more than 1 m deep.

Yield is reduced when the irrigation water is highly saline. Commercial orchards produce an average of seven tonnes per hectare each year, with some orchards achieving 20 tonnes per hectare.

Like the banana , the avocado is a climacteric fruit, which matures on the tree, but ripens off the tree. Avocados used in commerce are picked hard and green and kept in coolers at 3.

Avocados must be mature to ripen properly. Avocados that fall off the tree ripen on the ground. Once picked, avocados ripen in one to two weeks depending on the cultivar at room temperature faster if stored with other fruits such as apples or bananas, because of the influence of ethylene gas.

Some supermarkets sell ripened avocados which have been treated with synthetic ethylene to hasten ripening. The species is only partially able to self-pollinate because of dichogamy in its flowering.

This limitation, added to the long juvenile period, makes the species difficult to breed. Most cultivars are propagated by grafting , having originated from random seedling plants or minor mutations derived from cultivars.

Modern breeding programs tend to use isolation plots where the chances of cross- pollination are reduced.

The avocado is unusual in that the timing of the male and female flower phases differs among cultivars.

The two flowering types are A and B. A-cultivar flowers open as female on the morning of the first day and close in late morning or early afternoon.

Then they open as male in the afternoon of the second day. B varieties open as female on the afternoon of the first day, close in late afternoon and reopen as male the following morning.

Certain cultivars, such as the 'Hass', have a tendency to bear well only in alternate years. After a season with a low yield, due to factors such as cold which the avocado does not tolerate well , the trees tend to produce abundantly the next season.

In addition, due to environmental circumstances during some years, seedless avocados may appear on the trees. Avocados can be propagated by seed, taking roughly four to six years to bear fruit, although in some cases seedlings can take 10 years to come into bearing.

Prime quality varieties are therefore propagated by grafting to rootstocks that are propagated by seed seedling rootstocks or by layering clonal rootstocks.

After about a year of growing in a greenhouse, the young rootstocks are ready to be grafted. Terminal and lateral grafting is normally used.

The scion cultivar grows for another 6—12 months before the tree is ready to be sold. Clonal rootstocks are selected for tolerance of specific soil and disease conditions, such as poor soil aeration or resistance to the soil-borne disease root rot caused by Phytophthora.

Commercial avocado production is limited to a small fraction of the vast genetic diversity in the species. Conservation of this genetic diversity has relied largely on field collection, as avocado seeds often do not survive storage in seed banks.

This is problematic, as field preservation of living cultivars is expensive, and habitat loss threatens wild cultivars.

More recently, an alternate method of conservation has been developed based on cryopreservation of avocado somatic embryos with reliable methods for somatic embryogenesis and reconstitution into living trees.

Indoors, an avocado tree is usually grown from the pit of an avocado fruit. This is often done by removing the pit from a ripe, unrefrigerated avocado fruit.

The pit is then stabbed with three or four toothpicks, about one-third of the way up from the flat end. The pit is placed in a jar or vase containing tepid water.

It should split in four to six weeks and yield roots and a sprout. If there is no change by this time, the avocado pit is discarded. Once the stem has grown a few inches, it is placed in a pot with soil.

It should be watered every few days. Avocados have been known to grow large, so owners must be ready to re-pot the plant several times.

Avocado trees are vulnerable to bacterial , viral , fungal , and nutritional diseases excesses and deficiencies of key minerals.

Disease can affect all parts of the plant, causing spotting, rotting, cankers, pitting, and discoloration. It is normally found on avocado, and in Peru it is said to be the worst insect pest of the fruit.

Certain cultivars of avocado seem more susceptible to attack by the scale than others. Mexico is by far the world's largest avocado growing country, producing several times more than the second largest producer.

The avocado was introduced from Mexico to California in the 19th century, and has become a successful cash crop. Avocado is the official fruit of the state of California.

Other avocado cultivars include 'Spinks'. Historically attested varieties which may or may not survive among horticulturists include the 'Challenge', 'Dickinson', 'Kist', 'Queen', 'Rey', 'Royal', 'Sharpless', and 'Taft'.

A stoneless avocado, marketed as a "cocktail avocado," which does not contain a pit, is available on a limited basis. They are five to eight centimetres long; the whole fruit may be eaten, including the skin.

It is produced from an unpollinated blossom in which the seed does not develop. In , world production of avocados was 5.

The US government resisted, claiming the trade would introduce Tephritidae fruit flies that would destroy California's crops.

The Mexican government responded by inviting USDA inspectors to Mexico, but the US government declined, claiming fruit fly inspection was not feasible.

The Mexican government then proposed to sell avocados only to the northeastern US in the winter fruit flies cannot withstand extreme cold.

The US government balked, but gave in when the Mexican government started erecting barriers to US corn.

Imports from Mexico in the — season exceeded , metric tons , short tons ; , long tons. In the US, avocados are grown in California and Florida, where land, labor, and water are expensive.

Avocado trees require frequent, deep watering to bear optimally, particularly in spring, summer, and fall. Due to increased Southern California water costs, they are now costly to grow.

During the coronavirus pandemic, Mexican avocado farmers slowed harvesting thinking that consumption would drop. In fact, there was a surge in demand causing prices to rise as well.

The fruit of horticultural cultivars has a markedly higher fat content than most other fruit, mostly monounsaturated fat , and as such serves as an important staple in the diet of consumers who have limited access to other fatty foods high-fat meats and fish, dairy products.

Having a high smoke point , avocado oil is expensive compared to common salad and cooking oils , and is mostly used for salads or dips.

A ripe avocado yields to gentle pressure when held in the palm of the hand and squeezed. The flesh is prone to enzymatic browning , quickly turning brown after exposure to air.

The fruit is not sweet, but distinctly and subtly flavored, with smooth texture. The avocado is common in vegetarian cuisine as a substitute for meats in sandwiches and salads because of its high fat content.

Generally, avocado is served raw, though some cultivars, including the common 'Hass', can be cooked for a short time without becoming bitter.

The flesh of some avocados may be rendered inedible by heat. Prolonged cooking induces this chemical reaction in all cultivars.

It is used as the base for the Mexican dip known as guacamole , [2] as well as a spread on corn tortillas or toast, served with spices.

In the Philippines , Brazil, Indonesia , Vietnam , and southern India especially the coastal Kerala , Tamil Nadu and Karnataka region , avocados are frequently used for milkshakes and occasionally added to ice cream and other desserts.

Chocolate syrup is sometimes added. In Morocco , a similar chilled avocado and milk drink is sweetened with confectioner's sugar and flavored with a touch of orange flower water.

In Ethiopia , avocados are made into juice by mixing them with sugar and milk or water, usually served with Vimto and a slice of lemon.

It is also common to serve layered multiple fruit juices in a glass locally called Spris made of avocados, mangoes, bananas, guavas, and papayas.

Avocados are also used to make salads. Avocados in savory dishes, often seen as exotic, are a relative novelty in Portuguese-speaking countries, such as Brazil, where the traditional preparation is mashed with sugar and lime, and eaten as a dessert or snack.

This contrasts with Spanish-speaking countries such as Chile, Mexico, or Argentina , where the opposite is true and sweet preparations are rare.

In Australia and New Zealand, avocados are commonly served on sandwiches, sushi, toast, or with chicken. In Ghana , they are often eaten alone on sliced bread as a sandwich.

In Sri Lanka , their well-ripened flesh, thoroughly mashed or pureed with milk and kitul treacle a liquid jaggery made from the sap of the inflorescence of jaggery palms , is a common dessert.

In Mexico and Central America, avocados are served mixed with white rice, in soups, salads, or on the side of chicken and meat. In Chile , it is used as a puree-like sauce with chicken, hamburgers , and hot dogs ; and in slices for celery or lettuce salads.

The Chilean version of Caesar salad contains large slices of mature avocado. In Kenya and Nigeria, the avocado is often eaten as a fruit alone or mixed with other fruits in a fruit salad, or as part of a vegetable salad.

Avocado is a primary ingredient in avocado soup. Avocado slices are frequently added to hamburgers, tortas , hot dogs , and carne asada.

Avocado can be combined with eggs in scrambled eggs, tortillas, or omelettes , and is a key ingredient in California rolls and other makizushi "maki", or rolled sushi.

In the United Kingdom, the avocado became available during the s when introduced by Sainsbury's under the name 'avocado pear'.

In addition to the fruit, the leaves of Mexican avocados Persea americana var. A typical serving of avocado g is moderate to rich in several B vitamins and vitamin K , with good content of vitamin C , vitamin E and potassium right table, USDA nutrient data.

Avocados also contain phytosterols and carotenoids , such as lutein and zeaxanthin. Avocados have diverse fats.

Although costly to produce, nutrient-rich avocado oil has diverse uses for salads or cooking and in cosmetics and soap products.

The avocado tree can be grown domestically and used as a decorative houseplant. The pit germinates in normal soil conditions or partially submerged in a small glass or container of water.

In the latter method, the pit sprouts in four to six weeks, at which time it is planted in standard houseplant potting soil.

The plant normally grows large enough to be prunable; it does not bear fruit unless it has ample sunlight. Home gardeners can graft a branch from a fruit-bearing plant to speed maturity, which typically takes four to six years to bear fruit.

Some people have allergic reactions to avocado. There are two main forms of allergy: those with a tree-pollen allergy develop local symptoms in the mouth and throat shortly after eating avocado; the second, known as latex-fruit syndrome, [78] is related to latex allergy [79] and symptoms include generalised urticaria , abdominal pain, and vomiting and can sometimes be life-threatening.

Avocado leaves, bark , skin, or pit are documented to be harmful to animals; cats, dogs, cattle, goats, rabbits, [81] rats, guinea pigs, birds, fish, and horses [48] [82] can be severely harmed or even killed when they consume them.

Avocado leaves contain a toxic fatty acid derivative, persin , which in sufficient quantity can cause colic in horses and without veterinary treatment, death.

Birds also seem to be particularly sensitive to this toxic compound.

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